Global distribution and transmission

An infectious disease is transmitted from one person to another by direct or indirect means. Several types of bacteria, virus, fungi, and parasites can all cause infectious disease. Malaria, measles, and respiratory illnesses are examples of infectious diseases. The greatest exposure of new diseases comes from zoonoses-pathogens that circulate among wild animals and are seldom transferred to humans by intermediate invertebrate hosts that are susceptible to climatic conditions. Interpretive tools that are based on geographical information systems and that can assimilate distantly sensed information about the environment offer the potential to define the limiting conditions for any disease in its indigenous region for which there are at least some distribution data. The direction, intensity or likelihood of its spread to new regions could then be analysed, potentially permitting disease budding-warning systems to be developed.

 

  • Route of transmission
  • Transmission cycle and reservoir
  • Epidemic versus endemic

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