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Liana Monica Deac

Liana Monica Deac

Public Health Center Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Title: Foodborne illness a dynamic, everywhere possible emergency field today


Biography: Liana Monica Deac


Foodborne illness affl  icts people throughout the world. Th e CDC defi nes a foodborne disease outbreak as the occurrence of two or more similar illnesses resulting from ingestion of a common food. Each year, in USA, one in 10 people experiences a foodborne illness, 128,000 are hospitalized, 3,000 die, and 33 million healthy life-years are lost. While few patients with foodborne illness present with life-threatening symptoms, there are a number of foodborne infectious diseases and toxins that the emergency physician or other health care provider must consider in the evaluation of these patients. Given the frequency of international travel, as well as the risk associated with recurrent outbreaks of foodborne illness from commercial food sources, it is important to recognize various syndromes of foodborne illness, including those which may require specifi c evaluation and management strategies. Foodborne illness poses a signifi cant public health threat to the United States. Th e disease is defi ned as any ailment associated with the ingestion of contaminated food and is most oft en associated with gastrointestinal symptoms, including diarrhea, nausea, and/or vomiting. Individuals who are aged less than 5 years or more than 60 years or who are immunocompromised are at greatest risk for acquiring a foodborne illness. Th e most common cause of gastroenteritis is Salmonella infection. Annually, nontyphoidal Salmonella causes 1.2 million cases of foodborne illness and 450 deaths. Most Salmonella outbreaks were attributed to seeded vegetables (6.9%), pork (4%), or vegetable row crops (1.7%). Adults older than 65 years, people with weakened immune systems, and nonbreastfed infants are more likely to have severe infections. Approximately 8% of patients with nontyphoidal salmonellosis will develop bacteremia and require treatment with antibiotics, including ceft riaxone or azithromycin in children and a fl uoroquinolone (commonly levofl oxacin) or azithromycin in adults. Th e summer months (peaking in July or August) had the highest percentage of cases. Th e use of certain medications to reduce stomach acidity can increase the risk of Salmonella infection. Th e food safety systems in some countries aff ord better consumer protection than others. Th is situation, combined with diff ering climates and ecologies, results in the association of diff erent types of foodborne illness with diff erent regions of the world. In a global economy, both people and food travel the world. Clinicians need to consider foreign travel as well as the consumption of food from other parts of the world when determining the cause of foodborne disease. Th e key to reducing the incidence of foodborne illness is prevention. Proper food storage, refrigeration, handling, and cooking are vital. Patients should be educated to avoid high-risk items such as unpasteurized milk and milk products, as well as raw or undercooked items like oysters, meat, poultry, and eggs. Th e consumption of more meals in the home may also decrease the risk of foodborne illness.